Tag Archives: cyber law cases

How to AA status Copyright Book


When searching US published works in the public domain, it is a gray area from 1923 to 1963 where the book may or may not be in the public domain. To determine if a book copyright in that period is in the public domain and freely usable, take the following steps.

Some background on the length of copyright in the United States

  • Founded 1-1-78 or after – Life + 70 years1 (or the work of corporate authors, less than 95 years from publication or 120 years from creation
  • Published before 1923 – Public
  • Published from 1923 – 1963 – 28 year + could be renewed for 47 years, now extended for 20 years for a total renovation 67 years. If not so renewed, now in the public domain.
  • Published from 1964-77 – 28 years for the first time; Now automatic extension of 67 years for the second time
  • Established before 1-1-78 but not published – LIFE + 70 years old 12-31-2002, whichever is greater
  • Established before 1-1-78 but published between then and 12/31/2002 – Life + 70 years old 12/31/2047 whichever is greater

There is one other issue to be aware of – it is a derivative work. For example, you can find the current book is clearly reprint public domain book that carries a copyright notice. You may think that because the original book is the public that this book should be, too. Do not let yourself get caught in the trap and use material from copyrighted books. The way copyright works is that you can create a derivative work of the original public work and copyright to derivative works.

The original book is still public, derivative work would not. If you want to use this material, you will find the original book and use it as a basis because you can never be sure what was changed / modified in derivative works, and if you start to copy it, you can fall afoul of a violation of copyright.

always check the work you do on the original public SOURCE to be safe.

If you find useful books published before 1923, which is great. You do not have to make any confirmation code working to create a product. However, if the book was copyrighted between 1923 and 1963, there may still be under copyright. Estimates are that only 15% of all materials copyright of this period were renovated so there is a ton of stuff available to you during this period. And a lot of that stuff was the best sellers today so there are many hidden gems out there just waiting to be fresh and revealed to the world once again.

So how do you verify the copyright expiration of one of these books?

There are three ways you can take. You can do it yourself, hire a law firm to do a search or Copyright Office conduct a search for you.

Do It Yourself

do it yourself is fairly easy but can be a bit time consuming

If the book was copyrighted between 1950 and 1963 can be perform an online search at the copyright office this link :. http: //www.loc Gov / copyright / search / . This database contains information on copyrights from 1978 to the current date. Therefore, it is limited to search copyrighted books from 1950 onwards. (1950 + 28 = 1978 in a book copyrighted in 1950 has been renewed.)

If the book was published between 1923 and 1949, you can go to file Copyright Entries . This is a manual search in the alphabetic number of digital images. It is a slow process but it is effective. Just to be complete, it is always a good idea to take a few minutes to check several years around the year as well as 28 if only renewal fell in one year.

As you do your research, you should print a copy of any negative results and keep it in a folder of evidence to make a copyright search.

Have Copyright Office do the search for you

The Copyright Office will perform copyright searches for you. They do not charge a fee open (on an hourly basis) to perform a search, and they take a very long time (usually 6-12 weeks) so while it is a possibility, it is not a very popular option.

Hire firm

can hire a law firm as Thompson & Thompson perform copyright searches for you. It is reasonably priced and you will get a detailed report on the results of a copyright search as they occurred. The search is reasonably priced and provides additional security to the law firm said that the copyright has expired, and the work is in the public domain if there are disputes down the road.

Never ultimate

Like any system, search expired copyright is not perfect. There may be other claims on published literature or Errors and omissions copyright files due to human error. Always keep a good record of search operations to protect yourself in this in a million chance that it was unknown claims about the work you choose to work with.


Copyright Registration: Is it necessary



copyright is a form of intellectual property that protects original works of authorship such as literature (books, magazines, computer programs, tables and compilations including computer programs and databases), theater, music (songs and visual signals in the same), artistic, cinematographic and audio recording. In fact, it is a bundle of rights including, among other things, the rights of reproduction, communication to the public, adaptation and translation work. There may be a slight difference in the composition of rights after work.

history of copyright begins with the first privilege and monopoly provides printing of books. The British Act of Anne in 1709, the full title of “An Act to encourage Learning, by vesting copies of printed books in the Authors or purchasers of such Copies, during the Times mentions”, the first copyright law. Originally copyright only to copy the books and time other uses, such as translations and derivative works under copyright and copyright now covers a huge range of works, including maps, performances, paintings, photographs, sound recordings, films and computer programs.

It is interesting to note that copyright law does not protect ideas, but only the expression of an idea. For example, there are hundreds of movies based on love stories. Here’s an idea love story, which is not protected by copyright. The presentation of the idea put forward different managers in different ways considered different expression and hence capable of protection under copyright law. Each expression and each movie will have individual copyrights. In addition, the work should have a significant amount of skill, judgment, work and the work must be fixed in a tangible form, for example, if there is a song or drama it should be recorded, if it is a computer program it should write ..

The most frequently asked questions about copyright, whether it is necessary to register copyright or not. NO it is a legal right and follow the right and comes into being automatically after a competition at work. Legal copyright can be installed even without registration of copyright and copyright registration, registration of copyright is important in certain circumstances, such as:

1. Certification of registration of copyright is an authentic proof of valid title and ownership that can be produced in court prima facie proof of ownership in disputes or litigation. In some countries, copyright registration can be achieved copyright infringement lawsuit.Therefore, when the work is used for commercial purposes; it is advisable to have the registration of copyright made. However, it is desirable that a notification of copyright work even if it is not registered.

2. Copyright registration is even more important if the computer software program where the copied work looks exactly like the original work and it is very difficult to distinguish.

3. Copyright Registration establishes a public record of the copyright claim.

4. Registration Certificate is very important to have, if it becomes necessary for copyright owners to get a preliminary injunction against copyright infringer, such as immediately stopped the distribution of work is the perpetrator. The presumption of validity will apply only if the work has been recorded.

Therefore even if the copyright registration is not mandatory, it is a good idea to get it done especially when working for commercial use. It’s proof of ownership and valid title. Copyright can be recorded in Copyright Registry, New Delhi.


Cyber ​​Harassment – Fight Back With a Reverse Email Search


Do you ever wonder why the large Internet service providers, social networking sites and message board forums do not do anything to stop cyber harassment and online Stalking? It’s Because the Communications decency Act of 1996 (“CDA”) Section 230 (c) (1) shields providers of interactive computer services from liability for the actions of the Individuals using Those services.

Since They have no liability for the actions they too members They make very little effort to identify themself or Even discouragement the cyber harassment of other members.

Some Cyber ​​Harassment Statistics (2002):

– 62% of Cyber ​​Harassment Victims are Female, Primarily ages 18-24.

– Groups most at risk for Cyber ​​Harassment include:

– Women, particularly abused women

– Special Ability Groups

– Minors

– Members of Minority Groups

– New Internet Users

– 62% of all Cyber ​​Stalking Victims are located in the United States

– Cyber ​​harassers are Primarily male, but the number of female cyber harassment offenders is Growing steadily.

– 25% of Offenders are Personally known by Their victims.

If you or someone you know are the target of a cyber stalker or online harassment you do not need to take it lying down. Even though you Will get little help from the ISP or social network Can you hire a private investigator to performaces a reverse email search to locate and identify the stalker. Document Their investigation Into a report and use That report in court to get justice against your stalker.

If you are ready to fight back and stop being a victimless You Can begin by Searching online for a PI That Specialized in Internet Investigations and Cyber ​​Stalking intervention.


What happens in Juvenile Criminal?


Children Act deals with crimes committed by minors. The age to be considered a young offender may be different from state to state, but is typically around age 17. Generally, the offender must have been under 18 when the crime was committed to be considered young. If your child or someone you know is being accused of a crime, the following information can help you understand the basics of juvenile law process.


When juvenile crime is reported parental relationship and a hearing is scheduled. After the case is deemed worthy of prosecution, the court date is scheduled. Depending on the nature of the crime and many other factors, the child may be detained or released into the custody of their parents or guardians until the court date.

Juveniles have the same constitutional rights as adults. These rights include the right to remain silent, the right to have the attorney present, the right to cross-examine witnesses to speak against them and so on. In juvenile cases, as in adult cases, police must inform suspects of these rights. In many countries, social workers or counselors also assigned to criminal cases involving children and defendants.

crimes committed by children, ranging from traffic violations and petty theft to serious crimes like rape or murder are prosecuted by city, state or federal agencies. Court cases tend to be a little more informal than a typical adult prosecution. In most states, the court records in juvenile cases sealed so that no one from the public can access them. If after the case is tried in court the juvenile is determined to be guilty, he or she is doomed.

jury vs. conviction

Traditionally in juvenile criminal cases the focus has been on reform rather than punishment. Because of this, prison sentences have usually been less than they are for adults committing similar crimes. Unlike conviction, juvenile court adjudication remains of our child as far as job applications go. Most states require that juveniles sentenced to be released on turning 18.

landscape juvenile law is beginning to change somewhat in many countries. More juveniles are treated in adult court, especially in very severe cases. In addition, focus is beginning to shift a little bit of improvement punishment. Make sure you speak with a qualified attorney in your area who can explain how JUVENILE COURT works in a particular municipality website

Some types of judgment made in juvenile cases :.

o Fines or recovery

o Community Services

o probation


If there is even the slightest suspicion in the minds of the parents that their child may have committed a crime, it is important to hire a good attorney. If the juvenile is found to be guilty by the court, a good lawyer who is well versed in these types of cases can be spent in negotiating a less severe punishment.


Criminal Lawyers Law – The heavy hitters of law


There are many cases where the criminal law lawyers are indispensable. If you are ever in need of legal protection in civil or criminal proceedings, or both, this is the kind of advice you need to look.

if you are not able to pay for a lawyer at the time of your arrest, you will be appointed one through the state that will stand for you at the first arraignment phone. This will not last during the legal battle phone, however, so you need to find a way to keep criminal lawyer of your own before your trial begins.

There are many resources available to you today along the lines looking for an attorney, but you will be required to pay a retainer fee for most lawyers will participate in the case and defend you in court .

criminal lawyers are experienced and up to speed on the laws and regulations of such cases that hit and run accident, stalking, aiding and abetting, kidney and officer, murder, criminal trespass, and very many other issues on both civil and criminal sides of the law.

There are very often when it is considered prudent to attend court or enter a plea without the aid and advice of a lawyer.

This is because the rights are not protected properly. When you are charged with a crime, it’s not just your job to know what you are being accused of, but what the prosecution has to be able to prove to have you convicted of a crime.

The burden of proof is on the prosecution, but on the evidence, witnesses, and what you say, this can be very easy for them to reach. Even being present at the scene of a crime can turn into a conviction for you if you’re not protected by someone who knows the law and how to protect them.

On the other side of crime, these experts are quite useful to support both civil and criminal cases.

When you or a family member are the victim of a crime, there are many ways you can travel in order to find the right lawyer for your case.

If yours is a felony unjustly against you, you will be invited Prosecutions and will be in good hands. In a civil case, you need to produce a retainer and pay for their own criminal law attorney.

Whatever your circumstances, criminal law lawyers deal with both sides of the law, both the defense and

prosecution. To find the right lawyer for your case, it is important that you interview each prospect well and get a good feel for their experience and reputation. If you are not satisfied with the mandate, this could cause issues with understanding and trust later during the case, and both of these are important for success in court.


Regulation of Private Military and Security Companies


Private Military Companies and Private Security Companies cover a large area of ​​operation in the world today. They provide services to almost every part of society, including people, organizations, government offices and monuments. Their presence at every step generated the need for rules. In order to regulate Private Military companies and security companies, the government should:

1. Establish a licensing system with clear standards and contracting process for private military companies and security companies and individuals working for them.

2. Define prohibited activities and clearly manage all permitted activities.

3. Define the essential minimum of transparency and accountability of companies and in terms of preparation, training and behavior of companies and their employees.

4. Set rules and systems for screening and vetting of the companies and their employees.

5. Establish a monitoring system for private Military Companies and Private Security business activities.

6. Bring parliamentary oversight.

7. Set rules enable contracting authorities competitive, fair and transparent to the public.

8. Ensuring financing of all measures needed to rule.

As Private Military and Security Companies Company generated commercial industry, there is a need for international participation, too. Because of the position of this industry under international law is, at best, vague, explanations, and change it, international law in connection with the PMC and PSC is required. Proposals to, from and update the 1989 UN Assembly International Convention against the requirement, use, financing and training of mercenaries, creating a body of the UN that controls and penalties private military and security companies, establish an international register of the collected statements of both immigrants and Exporters services offered by this company.

Laws will be developed that provide control for various legal and jurisdiction issues the industry has increased. A key necessary to extend the legal clarity of the questions that can work for this company, which companies can work to which legal code control and the parties to investigate, prosecute, and punish any wrongdoing in any state. In and ideal arrangement, states will coordinate their efforts and take the regional organizations to maximize coverage in order to facilitate the way to international standards.


Shelf Corporations Uncensored – The Truth About Shelf Corps


Shelf corps or shelf companies are usually companies that have been left on the “shelf” age. Usually, people buy shelf companies

1. Have access to credit, which they would not have access to a brand new company.

2. Have the ability to apply for public contracts. Some contracts require companies that are two years or older.

When looking at the age of companies that you will understand that there are law firms that sell shelf companies as well as shelf CORP vendors. Many of shelf Corp suppliers that claim to sell shelf Corps and build business credit, they are scammers. In 2010, it is impossible to get $ 150k in no personal guarantee credit with one company. So if you see something like this being advertised, you must know that it is a scam.

Usually, you will be able to get 20K-50K (50K is a little stretch) in no PG cash business credit with one corporation so if you are looking for more than this, you get more than one corporation. These credit lines can get in as little as 2 weeks if done properly. Because of the reduced range of business credit is purchased with a shelf company, you may want to take a serious look at how much you are paying for shelf companies. I recommend that you do not pay for the $ 4,000 for a shelf company with an established credit record and more than $ 3,000 with one without paydex.

What you need to know about shelf companies is that most of shelf companies providers do not actually sell shelf companies. They acquire companies that are now out of business, reinstate them and sell them. The thing is, this corps cost reseller $ 150 $ 300 and are resold for $ 2,000 +. It will be difficult for me to explain everything in this one article I will cover as much as I can in a small space I have.

Basically you have to go to the state that you are interested in Secretary State Website and look up companies that have to pay the state their charges. You check the credit of the company that you will like to have to ensure that it is either good credit or bad credit not (depending on whether you simply want a shelf company with good paydex score or absolute age corp). Once you have identified the company that you want, you will want to contact the previous owner of the company and have them agree to move corp you.

This process is simple but there are two parts of the process is a bit tricky. First, check your credit at an affordable price is a challenge. You pay DNB $ 100 + on a full DNB credit file of a particular company. The tricky part to work is to get the owner to sign the company over to you. I’ve covered both of these substances in two my books. My blog also has plenty of free, useful information about building business credit from scratch.

In concluded that buying a shelf company is something that can be very useful in building business credit quickly. Simply be very careful who you buy it from and consider how much you pay for it.


Song title, lyrics, and copyright infringement? When I need access


If you are writing a novel or short story, you may encounter a situation where you want to r

Q. Can I mention the title song in my work?

A. You can mention the title – or the name of something else, for that matter -. Freely, without asking permission

Publications based on the idea that the individual author’s work shall be protected as intellectual authors. However, it is important to note that in order to benefit from this protection, the work in question must both be unique and original author .

Song titles, however, constitute neither of these things, and therefore they are not subject to copyright protection. In fact, their “Copyright Basics” version, the US Copyright Office specifically excludes “titles, names, [and] Short sentences” from being eligible for copyright protection.

Q. Can I quote a song someone else in my work?

A. Except in certain cases, such as fair use, you need permission before reproducing someone else’s copyrighted material.

In most cases, using someone else’s work without permission is considered copyright infringement. However, there are exceptions to this :. Fair Use

There is no hard-and-fast rule that says what is and is not considered fair use. Instead, courts generally look at four aspects:

  1. The purpose and character of the use
  2. The copyrighted content
  3. The amount of the work used, based on the entire work
  4. The effect of using the project could have on the market value of the original work

Copyright is to provide some explicit purpose of fair use, commentary, criticism and criticism, for example. (This is how the book reviews are under copyright law, for example.) But there are other uses not specifically mentioned here, and whether the use is considered fair use, at the end of the day or not, shall be determined by the courts -. the last place you want to end

Before it gets to that point, it’s a good idea to look at other aspects so you can have some idea of ​​whether or not to use the phone could be considered fair.

With regard to song lyrics, look also factor in the amount of labor used. While there is no set percentage of the material that will be allowed on fair use, consider cited by only two lines will be more advantageous to use than reproducing the entire song.

Along these lines, the last factor can also help you determine whether or not the use could land you in hot water. The longer the market for a new job is from the original market for original song, the higher the risk.

Here is an example. If you are writing a fiction novel and the protagonist walks into a cafe, a few lines from the song could be playing on the radio. Mention these lines helps put a character in a certain period; it probably does not undermine the original market or potential value of the song in the way that, say, copy the entire song in a Songs of the century collection force.


What is Copyright Awareness?


There is no standard definition for “Copyright Awareness”. However, some critics argued that consciousness can only be defined in the light of what has been observed in all areas of perception, knowledge and awareness. In each expression, awareness is seen as the ability to perceive (perception), know (knowledge) or the position to be aware of (consciousness).

Simply defined, consciousness means you aware of something. Let us say “I am aware of road accidents” it is qualified as a “car accident Awareness”. Similarly, when “I am aware of copyright”, also is “Copyright Awareness”. This means that when there is awareness of something, that thing will be qualifying materials for awareness.

In this wise, copyright awareness is knowing that copyright exists and to have knowledge of it. It is a condition to have conscious knowledge of copyright perceive high. When users copyright materials display a sense of awareness in an educational institution, it gives authors the opportunity to enjoy the economic value of their works and encourages their author.

Copyright awareness can be developed when conscious efforts are made to bring it into reality. For example, when copyright notice appear in various places where copyright material is mainly used.

The importance of awareness of copyright may notice his absence. That is to say that the lack of copyright can be taken when there is a problem of uncontrolled activities of copyright infringement as illegal copying, plagiarism and piracy within the academic structure.

Awareness in all fields of life is very demanding. In the same vein, Awareness of Copyright Protection has also remained globally controversial aspects of copyright for work right for copyright protection, works not protected by copyright and protection of authors under copyright protection. This, however, found that a lot of people have little or no knowledge in this field.

On the other hand, awareness of copyright infringement (ACI) can be said to be an awareness that is created when people become aware, conscious, alert, and responsive to the unauthorized use of copyrighted works that are prohibited. Some scholers argued that before we can discuss what constitutes awareness of copyright infringement (ACI), it is probably a good idea to lay out what specifically rights awarded by the copy right laws that are likely to be broken. For example, in Ghana, according Bosumprah (2009), “copyright is violated when a work protected by copyright is used in any of the following ways without permission from the copyright owner

  • Reproduction , duplication, extraction or imports to the country not for personal use but for commercial purposes.
  • distribution work for sale in Ghana “.

This is because work exploited in the above manner may be prejudicial to the honor or reputation of the author. This is why section 41 of the Copyright Act 2005 (Act 690) of the purposes of making that violate the rights of authors as specified sections 5 and 6, and copyright infringement. So, where the copyright owner has the exclusive right to do all these things (or allow others to do the ), the fraction that can happen when someone makes any of them without the permission of the copyright holder (Davidson, 2010).

Davidson (2010), however, agree with other researchers that “the majority of copyright infringement suits involve irrelevant. .. “

  • Reproduction (like copying the works) for photocopying, and that according Panethiere (2005), is one of the common ways to break copyright of literary works.
  • distribution (such as copies of the work) to piracy. According Panethiere (2005), this happens through the unauthorized manufacture and sale of works of copyright – what Osman (2010) considered Counterfeiting or the creation or distribution of imitations of genuine works for the purpose of deceiving the public about their reliability.
  • Using someone else’s ideas or words, as in the plagiarism or using someone else’s ideas or words without properly crediting the source, Osman (2010).

Further to Panethiere (2005) argued that

“it is not necessary for all work to be copied or more one backup to be copyright infringement to occur. An infringement of copyright occurs as long as a significant part of the work is taken or other use of the copyright “.

This is because it is a significant part is often taken to qualitative rather than quantitative testing. It is a quality or essence of what has been taken, rather than the amount that goes often determine whether the part taken is significant or not.


Bosumprah, B. (2009). The Rights and responsibilities of the media under the copyright .

Davidson, J. (2010). What constitutes copyright infringement and how it is determined? IP Registration and Enforcement Blog. An Discussion on intellectual property and entertainment law issues.

Osman, I. (2010). Scope of Copyright Law.

Panethiere, D. (2005). The persistence Piracy: Consequences for creativity, culture, and sustainable development. UNESCO E-Copyright Bulletin . (UNESCO).


Cyber ​​Crime Criminal Justice Programs


If Law enforcement has been the career of your dreams now is the time to fulfill those dreams. The fastest growing technology world today are the possibilities in this field are wide open. Take a little time to research the many programs the criminal justice system accessible online.

Cyber ​​Crime is one of the fastest growing areas of criminal justice. Learn the process of recovering digital information has been used to commit crimes. Maybe in your area of ​​interest in identity theft or fraud; These are areas that you can explore by launching the Online Criminal Justice Program. It takes only a few minutes of your time and will make the difference between a job and an exciting job.

If the responsibility to raise a family and work has been to restrain the career you always wanted you really can take that all important step today. Simply fire up the laptop while relaxing with a morning coffee in the short term you may be registered in the Criminal Justice Program.

Investing in your future now will give you a chance to get financial security for both you and your loved ones deserve. An online program also gives you the freedom to learn at night or on weekends or when the time is convenient for you

Do not put your future on hold longer. your dream to work in the criminal justice system is worth the few minutes it would take to investigate the online program that is right for you. Technology has thrown wide open the doors to this fascinating field. You will learn about cyber stalking, homicide or a number of other areas that interest

You can get a Criminal Justice Degree Online while continuing to work full time with the luxury attend class anytime -. Day or night. Learn to develop an understanding of modern methods to solve the crime. Gain critical insight into the causes of crime as well as the overall understanding of the criminal justice system. Take a few minutes now to study online Criminal Justice Programs that will give you an understanding of the courts, juvenile justice, corrections and criminal justice.

Invest in the growth of your career by taking a few minutes to go online and find out about the many Programs Criminal Justice available to you. Take part in a challenging job that will set the stage for the future. Choose from a wide variety of specialties in such areas as homeland security or identity theft. demand for qualified professionals in the criminal justice system has never been higher. You have worked hard to provide for your family and deserve to take your career to the next level. Your loved ones will be proud of the commitment that you are making for you and for the future.

The first step to realize your career is to take a few minutes to fire up your computer and find the best online criminal Justice Programs [http://www.onlinecriminaljusticeprograms.info]. You might be registered in the program best suited to your needs by the end of the day and work to a brighter future.