Income Benefits


Materials company tax benefits is a complicated one. Most types of units – single proprietorship, partnerships, subchapter S and limited liability companies – who have not elected to be taxed as ordinary (or C) companies have taxes go through the company. These taxes appear later when owners file individual tax returns. Regular C corporation and all the LLC chooses to be taxed as corp are separate entities tax have to file their own tax returns and pay their taxes.

In the past decade, the IRS released its so-called “Check the box” rules. Effective early 1997, allowing these rules taxpayers choose tax status of entities regardless of the company (or non-corporate) character. Thus, operating with more than one owner can choose to be classified as a partnership or corporation in order to get the business tax benefits. Units with only one owner can choose to be classified as a corporation or a private company. Event of default (that is, where the taxpayer does not make an election), many-owner of the company is classified as a partnership and one-person company as the only proprietorship.

A business entity is effectively eliminated under state law, or one that needs to be a corporation under federal law will have access to company tax benefits. Limited liability companies are not treated automatically as being incorporated under state law, which is why they must choose either the corporation or partnership status.

tax benefits under the federal income tax to get more meaning if compared with treatments to individual taxpayers.

gross income determination for businesses and individuals is done the same way. This includes income from compensation for services rendered gains on transactions in property, interest, rents, dividends, to name a few. Individual and corporate tax contain certain included in gross income, and corporate taxpayers are less exemptions. For example, both categories of taxpayers may exclude interest municipal bonds from gross income.

Gains and losses on real estate are treated similarly. Since non-taxable exchanges are concerned, allow individual and business tax non-recognition of gain or loss on a like-kind exchange. Both may defer capital gains recognized involuntary business property. Neither businesses nor individuals may deduct the loss on sale of assets to related parties or wash sale of securities (with certain exceptions). The business deductions by companies also co persons, although certain elements that are personal in nature, like care credit, are not available to businesses.

Further income tax benefit is that companies pay a federal income tax rate lower than most individuals for the first $ 75,000 of their profits – 15% of the first $ 50,000 of profits and 25% of the next $ 25,000. Professional companies are charged a flat 35% tax rate. All authorized common deductions are treated as business deductions, which makes the decision adjusted gross income, which is so important for individual taxpayers, small businesses replace. Corporate taxable income is calculated simply by subtracting from the total for all permissible deductions and losses. Individuals, on the other hand, consider itemized deductions or the standard deduction.


How to use music that you do not have – a legal way


In the Internet era of today, the music made by one artist can be heard anywhere in the world by another with just the click of a mouse. Unfortunately, with this type of access are more involved in copyright infringement. However, this is not necessary. The following article will outline how you can use the musical creativity of others, legally.

If you are looking to buy the rights to the music, you must contact the owner. The reason for this is that under copyright law, they own the exclusive right to produce, reproduce, transfer and license of all or some of their copyright in musical creation. A binding assignment or license must generally put in writing and shall be signed by the copyright owner or authorized agent of the owner.

To contact music copyright owner or the representative of the copyright owner you can:

o check if they have included their name with the copyright symbol on the job

o Search if they have a website

o Contact copyright collective focus on music

o If the work is published, you may contact the webmaster of the efforts to find the copyright owner

o Contact a lawyer who specializes in the search for copyright owners

In the event you do not want to buy the right music, you have another option. Any music that is put in solid form is “copyright” in most global music copyright laws. Therefore, there is not really any ‘copyright free music. However, some artists themselves not their exclusive and will let others use their music without license fee or commission. In many cases, all they ask is the recognition that it is their work. By simply looking at the net, you can find either individual artists who allow the use of their work, or the business of selling music on behalf of artists.

Finally, it is not necessarily “Copyright free music ‘, there is something called” public “. A work falls into the’ public ‘only when the duration of copyright protection has expired. Works in the public domain is no longer subject to the terms of copyright and may be used freely without permission of the author. Before work, it is important that you can prove that your work is in the public domain, or you may be infringing on the rights of any (which could lead to expensive legal proceedings). A work is usually in public life: the author, the remainder of the calendar year in which the author dies plus 50 to 70 years (depending on the country where copyright originated).

So in essence, there are a number of ways to use music you do not own, without partaking of copyright infringement

Disclaimer .:

The above information is intended as a general guide to further music copyright knowledge and does not constitute legal advice. For questions about some of your work, you should consult a copyright lawyer in your country.


Copyright Law – How to Copyright Music


copyright protection for music is extremely important. If you do not own the copyright to the music, someone could use it in whatever manner they wanted. In other words, it could be copied without permission, the ground, or used for projects that you can not deliver. As such, other people might earning of work you created while you get zero credit.

Fortunately, there is the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. This agreement sets out minimum requirements for copyright protection in the state of his guide. There are over 150 countries that belong to the Berne Convention – so if you’re reading this, your country belongs probably to the contract and the minimum standards

-. How to Copyright Music

According to the Berne Convention, copyright is automatic. What this means is, as soon as you put music on solid, you have automatically copyrights. So “How do you copyright music?” you put it in solid form. Here are some examples to further explain the concept of automatic Copyright

Lyrics: when you write lyrics on a napkin – you have automatic copyright to the lyrics. Other people are not allowed to use the lyrics without permission

musical composition :. When you write musical notation on the staff paper (for example), you own the copyright to the composition. Others are not allowed to use this musical composition for your own work without permission

Sound Recordings :. When you register a song on the CD, you own the copyright to the listed results (this can be a song and / or lyrics). This means others can not copy a special recording of the song (this is why it is illegal to “burn” CDs you buy in stores – because the artist or label owner recording). As a reminder that you have permission to track someone if you are using their lyrics or musical composition

-. Copyright not the poor man – Copyright registration

own the copyrights to music is one thing, but actually being able to prove that you are the owner of the work is another. Many people like to use the process “poor man’s Copyright”, is mailing a copy of your work by registered letter. This method has been considered completely useless when it comes to proving ownership of the registered envelop can happen in various ways.

As such, the most proven method to protect the copyright of music is our work with reputable third parties. To find registries, you can simply type “copyright protection” in Google, Yahoo, or MSN, and their number will come up. Do your research and choose a registry that best suits your needs (look at the membership fees, annual fees and the duration of protection as a starting point).

As a reminder, you do not have to check your work to the plight protected by copyright law, however, it is an outstanding form of protection (and worth the investment) should someone break your work

Disclaimer .:

The above information is intended as a general guide to strengthen copyright knowledge and does not constitute legal advice. For questions about some of your work, you should consult a copyright lawyer in your country.


What is Cyber ​​Security?


It seems that almost everything is now based in the network and computers – entertainment, communication, transport agents, shopping, etc. How much of your life is dependent on the internet? How much information is stored on a computer or someone else’s? With such a high dependency on computers, neglect rise in cyber crime is very harmful.

Cyber ​​security effectively protects personal information by responding, find and prevent attacks. Cyber ​​security is effectively promoted reducing cyber crimes. All banking institutions and companies today run their business online. Hackers can hack your computer system and misuse personal information and photos. Various other risks associated with cyber crimes are the entry of the virus into the system, edit files, change passwords, steal credit card information and making unauthorized purchases.

Today, there are several universities and colleges that are offering Cyber ​​degrees. In related studies you can learn about cyber forensics, data encryption, network security, etc. In companion studies that students are taught to use the latest model and ensure that the digital communication information carried in an appropriate manner that is guaranteed by supervision or attack by experts hackers and malevolent computer users. Organizations and companies will be increasing need for cyber professionals in the future to protect the company’s files and personal information.

A degree in this field will provide you the opportunity to work as a computer support technician, systems administrator, network administrator or similar position. People with member security degrees can enjoy the following career and annual revenues

Network Administrator: $ 58,190

Support Specialist: $ 40,430

Systems Administrator: $ 58,190

career opportunities for cyber security sector is expected to increase in the coming years. Demand for network administrators and network administrators will grow at a rapid pace.

Typical courses Associate Cyber ​​Security degree covers cyber forensics, Hardware, cyber security, working with computers and the Internet, applied mathematics, and software support. The degree program is expected that students learn about antivirus software, encryption, firewalls, and other similar methods to ensure data security in telecommunications that under the rules of your company.


Criminal Law Jobs – 12 Basic legal concepts


We have tried to explain 12 basic concepts of criminal law that will give you a better understanding of some of the ideas that you would have to learn when to consider a career in criminal law.

Actus Reus – this Latin phrase means which directly translates to a guilty act. In a criminal case it is the responsibility of the prosecution to prove “proof of guilt” which could also be described as a fault or blame-worthiness. It is necessary to prove that the defendant was guilty in mind

relationship -. Did they come about as a result? It may be simple but it is important when putting together legal issues for Solicitors can be sure that people accused were responsible for the act or omission that caused the illegal consequences.

Approval – we have already discussed guilty action, concurrence describes the need to bother guilty mind and a guilty act. Approval is not always necessary in cases of strict liability. Essentially, if guilty action do not in point of time with guilty action then no crime has been committed

Mens Rea -. This is a mental factor Criminal Code, it can be compared simplistically to the idea of ​​motive. Guilty mind not in isolation does not make someone criminally guilty. There are usually four different types of Mens Rea, the intention, as it was planned. Knowledge, carelessness and negligence are other situations where someone can be described as guilty of mind

plan -. They had the foresight to see the consequences and desire to act or fail to act to avoid the consequences. If they are able to prove this man is not guilty. This concept is especially important and is one of the areas most controversial when issues reach of

Recklessness -. A type of Mens Rea, it falls like to be less culpable than the intent or knowledge, but he still would have been able to avoid the consequences they had not been guilty of

Wilful Blindness -. this is where a person tries to avoid responsibility for the crime by making a deliberately ignorant of the facts that would make them responsible for the crimes. This protects the situation where people make a deliberate attempt to excuse themselves from responsibility

Criminal Negligence -. Careless, inattentive or neglectful. Neglect is another type of Mens Rea. To be criminally negligent person accused has had the foresight to see the danger that is responsible for the illegal conclusion

Ignorantia Juris not excusat -. Direct translation from the Latin, this phrase is Ingnorance law is not an excuse. This is one of the more easy to follow aspects of criminal law. Just because someone may not be aware of the law or some of its details it does not mean that they can not be guilty

Vicarious liability -. This means that if a group of people are collectively involved in the crime they are all accountable conducted as group. Usually in most modern criminal cases there is no vicarious liability and someone has to be responsible to the guilty

Corporate viability – in the eyes of the law firms and corporations can be treated as if they were ‘ real ‘person

Strict Liability -. in cases of strict liability mens rea need not be proved, the person charged with strict liability crime may well be found guilty and sentenced, even if they were unaware or ignorant of the crime.


Distinguish between tort law, criminal law and contract law



Tort is a violation of any civil duty independently of contract benefits may be recoverable. If there is an injury that no compensation is recoverable is not a tort. The tort is based on common law. It is still growing. It is not part of the statue law.

2. Marking :.

tort word is derived from the Latin word “torta” which means to turn or “conduct” that is twisted

3. The definition of

> Salmond

According to Salmond tort is a civil wrong that cure the common law action for Unliquidated damages, which is not only the violation of trust or other just equitable obligation

> Oxford Dictionary: ..

Tort is a private or civil wrong

> Philip James

Tort is private or civil wrong regardless of contracts to remedy is an action for damages unliqidated

4 .. Distinguish between Tort and Contract

i. We seek legal :.

> tort law protects the right of the REM available against the whole world

> Law Convention protect the right of personas that means against particular person.

II. AS damages :.

> In tort, damage unliquidiated

> The contract damages are liquidiated

III. AS to give consent

> Tort is always cause against the consent of the person

> contract is always established. the consent of a person.

IV. AS systematic :.

> tort law is not codified

> contract law is codified

V. AS fixation rights and obligations

> rights and obligations are fixed by the law of tort. > Rights and obligations are determined by the parties in agreement.

VI. AS defense

> In tort necessity defense. > The agreement, necessity is no defense.

VII. AS doctrine of vicarious liability :.

> principle or theory of vicarious liability applies

> ideology or doctrine of vicarious liability does not apply.

VII. AS restriction

> limitation period is one year in tort. > Limitation of time is a three-year contract.

IX. AS status minor :.

> In tort minor person can sue and be sued

> The Agreement minor person can not sue and not be sued.

5. Distinguish between tort and criminal law

i. AS the party :.

> In tort parties are known as the plaintiff and the defendant

> In criminal law, the parties are known to the state and the accused .

II. AS punishment

> Tortfeasor has to pay damages

> Criminal sent to prison

III. AS method

> The tort is a procedure regulated by the Civil Procedure Code 1908.

> Fer are controlled by CCP 1898.

IV. AS intention

> plan is not appropriate in tortiuous act

> intention is always relevant in a criminal. ceremony.

V. AS defense

> Necessity is the protection tortiuous act

> need not protection. punishable.

VI. AS compromise

> In tort, compromise is permissible

> Compromise is not allowed in criminal law

VII. AS a matter :.

> run by the claimant’s tort

> Fer are made by the state in criminal law.

VIII. AS systematic: ..

> tort law is not codified

> Codified in the Pakistan Penal Code

IX. AS status minor :.

> man to seven years tortuously civil liability

> A person under seven years is not criminally responsible .

6. Conclusion :.

Finally I can say that tort law is different from the law of contract and criminal law


Large enterprises Bureaucratic & Not That Way by Choice


Many expert in management will be available to most large companies are too bureaucratic and thus inefficient. However, one has to ask why these large companies are so bureaucratic. A corporation is created to generate profits and bureaucracy stifles the single most important goal.

You see, the modern corporation is not a bureaucratic choice, rather it that way and developed in the direction due to the influence and interference of government rules and regulations that take it away from its main function. So, in fact, it is their own government bureaucracy is forced into the business.

Carli Fiorina former president of Hewlett-Packard once said the World Economic Summit in Davos concern with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and other incessant regulations. She said they spent too much time in the control room to ask their lawyers and accountants if they were doing something, when they were to make major business decisions. She explained that the control room was becoming a place for CYA rather than making business decisions based on profit incentives.

The fact is that government agencies work very hard to control how businesses operate and make them politically correct, and in doing so they prevent them from making a profit. It is not natural for a company to grow through the bureaucracy, it is unfortunate that our rules and regulations in the business, are forced to accept such inferior genetic mutations become cancer bureaucracy.

to the government ceases to interfere at this stage, free-enterprise, no business is safe. Please consider this.


Definition Copyright


Copyright is defined as the exclusive right to publish, sell or otherwise deal with the written question whether it is a book that contains any material. The Copyright Act of 1976 protects all writing by January 1, 1978 for the lifetime of the author plus seventy years. If there are two or more works of the copyright lasts for 70 years after the death of the last author. Anonymous publications are however different. They last for 95 years from the date of publication or 120 years from the day to write whichever is shorter.

What works for pre provider to January 1, 1978 were originally copyrighted in 28 years with a renewal of that term only. The Copyright Act extended the renewal period to 47 years total time of 75 years. Public Law Number 105-298, which was signed on October 27, 1998 be extended to 67 years, for a total of 95 years.

supply any job in the public domain where it is freely accessible from the outside world can not be copyrighted as it is accessible to anyone. Thus it is able freely copied and distributed by anyone. If the work is protected by copyright, it is represented by a small c in a circle or copyrights words written under it.

The practice of requiring notice to be published to remind people of copyright is not required by law as amended March 1, 1989 of the Berne Convention. United States and other countries agreed to follow her instructions. However works written before the date required written notice, or that they were considered in the public domain. If the notification is still used after the date on which it is useful to the author as it identifies his or her name, date of publishing and writing, and helps the judicial authorities matters relating to work.

Copyright Law protects the intellectual property of individuals or group of individuals from unscrupulous people who would try and benefit from the work and expertise of others.


How To Avoid copyright infringement


Copyright infringement is not easy to explain. While it may seem as simple as not using someone else’s work, it is not that easy. Thanks to the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and many other organizations, we have the ability to use other people’s work – as long as we use it under Fair Use laws. So what does Fair Use has to do with copyright infringement, and how can you take advantage of it?

Fair Use Act allows us to use copyrighted work without paying any royalties. This includes the use of copyrighted works for educational or instructional use, criticism of the work, the definition of work, for reporting on work, teaching work (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship uses, and research. This is referred to in full in Section 107 of the Copyright Code (often called Fair Use) and is available for you to read at your local library.

copyright infringement in the day-to-day life

Sometimes, if you are writing an essay for work or school, or if you are creating a Power Point presentation, you need to use the work of someone who is already in copyright. So how do you use it without committing copyright infringement? All you have to do is ask – the worst they can say is no, right? But if they say no, there are several things in public that can help you to finish the project without having to commit copyright infringement.

What is the public domain, and how it relates to copyright infringement?

Material not copyrighted is considered in the public domain. You can not commit copyright infringement of works in the public domain. These works are the copyright has expired or is not copyrightable – such publications government, jokes, title, and ideas. Some writers (writers, musicians, artists and more) deliberately put their work in public, without getting copyright, by providing a collaboration with Creative Commons. Creative Commons allows people to create content to skip some or all, of copyright rights and put their work partly or fully in the public domain.

So, how do I make sure I’m not committing copyright infringement?

First of all, if you are going to use someone else’s material, you may want to check the public domain to see if anything is suitable for use, instead of trying to use someone else’s copyright. However, if you can not find something suitable (and you can not create something yourself), the next best thing (and only legal your course of action) is to find a piece that is in copyright, and contact the copyright holder.

When you contact the copyright holder, make sure you tell them what you want to use their work – whether it is for your blog, podcast, or report – and ask if you can use it. You may have to pay royalties or a reference in your piece or a combination of both. The author can also set many restrictions on when and how you can use their material. Follow all the instructions they give you, and you’ll be free and clear to use their work as you want.

When you have a license to use a copyrighted work, you need to make sure you stay within the agreed -upon goals. If you veer off their agreement, you can open yourself up for the copyright infringement lawsuit, which can be nasty, expensive and time consuming. If you are in doubt, before contacting the copyright holder, contact copyright lawyer to ensure that you are following the law – and protect yourself

QUESTION: If you hear a great new band, and then download ! song from MySpace, it is legal or not

ANSWER: The events of copyright infringement are not only limited by Kazaa, Morpheus, or any other file sharing peer to peer (P2P) services. If you download a song – no matter if you are on a website or MySpace page – and it’s not coming from the artist himself, you may want to think about applying it. Chances are, if it’s not coming from them, you can not have it – unless it’s under the Creative Commons License. Creative Commons gives exactly the ways you can use the permit – and often they are completely free and legal to download, so be sure to check if it is under CC license

QUESTION :. If I’m writing a paper or article, and I will quote another website, I

ANSWER 😕 First of all, did you know about the way you write or create something, you hold the copyright to it? Especially if you are writing it online – it’s very easy to track things on the Internet. So, if you’re writing a blog, all you have written (no matter good or bad) are recorded, thanks to, which allows you to view the latest versions of your web pages.

Sometimes we can use someone else’s work in our own, and think we are small and anonymous. That no one will notice that when you get it down – you are just “borrow” it. Before you start quoting any website – from CNN local neighborhood hardware store – you need to ask the person who has copyright if you can. Usually, they let you know if you possess them. It depends who you talk to, you’ll either have to pay royalties or Permission to republish. If you do not ask before you testify, you are starting the event of copyright infringement and you are opening yourself up for a lawsuit.


What is bullying, Trolling and cyberstalking?


The Dark Side of speech, Pt 2


our culture and probably most other people have previously thought that bullies are bad news, but bullying is also a rite of passage. We often think that bullying tends to end with college. Nothing is further from the truth

As a culture, resistant and often wages adult bullies -. Especially Bully managers in the workplace. We welcome bullies in entertainment as a warrior and a winner (as we also celebrate the bully get his or comeuppance her), and although hazing in schools, the military and brotherhood are getting pushback from the culture, we do a little to eradicate bullying. Our politicians are often renowned bullying in nature. Unless there are bodies, it seems that we expect people to just put up with it (or fight back).

as harmful as heinous as bullying can be, cyberbullying takes it a step further. Cyberbullying using the Internet and other electronic forms technology to post mean or embarrassing photos, messages, emails, or to make threats. However, attackers often anonymous – unknown – and there is no one to fight against. Therefore, potential cyber bully is often emboldened to create as much havoc with the life of the victim’s possible. Potential viral nature of such posts – that is, can these posts to repeat a lot, quickly, and indefinitely -. Not happen in a face to face meeting

A typical (non-cyber) bullying event happens at a moment in time and it is completed (although other such event can occur). Bullying happens at a point in space – the street corner or in the office, maybe. A bullying is often witnessed, with attackers known to all present. A cyberbullying incident, on the other hand, can be distributed to hundreds of people in seconds and millions of people in a fairly short, can last for a long period, can be distributed around the world, and has no one to answer for their actions.

Therefore, damage from such incidents may occur again and echo again and again. Sadistic kind can take pleasure in repeating and reposting, and even create a web site to encourage their persistence. These sites caused a pile-on effect, with nasty fellow travelers bring their own often excruciatingly error of insults, reposting private photos, and multiply the damage. Some people may not realize or care about the damage they cause; others relish.

One unfortunate creation cyberbullying is “revenge porn.” There are sites on the Internet that are available only to humiliate and hurt people (mostly women) with electronic display and reposting sexual photos of ex-lover or interested. Some of these letters are designed to embarrass colleagues about the person pornographic photo is posted. Target may be a former boyfriend or husband of the victim to be “collateral damage.” Even well-known individuals can take part in the ugly behavior, such as the recent case of hip-hop star and his site featuring pornographic video of girlfriend hip-hop in his beef with rap.

Many victims seemingly endless cyberbullying, including customers who have come to us for help, have had their self-esteem devastated. Others have been driven drug use dropping out of school or community, and bullying behavior has even been implicated in suicide. Although usually not considered a crime, it is far from victimless.

Cyber ​​Talking

Cyber ​​Talking is a more extreme form of cyberbullying, and as cyberbullying, is much enabled by anonymity possible via the Internet. It is the use of the Internet and other technology to harrass someone, though some cyberstalking may be the secret of time. But “traditional” Stalker may shadow the movements of the victim, spying on them from hidden areas or with binoculars or a telescope, the cyber stalker keeps an eye on their ticket (s) electronically.

Much of our social life is a semi-public these days, social media such as Twitter and Facebook. The Internet makes it easy for a person to hide his or her identity, making fake identity, or pose as someone else – perhaps the false friend – that makes it simple to spy on the activities of individuals on social networks. As cyberbullying, ease of anonymity on the Internet can embolden the cyber stalker, thinking (often correctly) that they will not find out.

We regularly encounter cases where Stalker has been able to investigate and guess credentials for the email address of the victim or other online accounts that makes it easy to find the victim’s whereabouts, conversations and correspondence. In some of these cases, the perpetrator will even interpret the victim, sending fake e-mail messages, status as victims themselves, or publish embarrassing pictures if the victim herself was the source of the statements, pictures or videos.

This has come to understand and judge to mean that the government can not keep you from telling piece, no matter how much the government or someone else might disagree. This applies to all governments in the US – Federal, State, local party and government officials of these government entities. You are free to speak in a “Public Square.” Note that the term Public Square only to the activities of institutions, assets and officials. It does not apply to private or commercial. Property owners or business owners can prohibit you from saying certain things, or from saying anything of it or within their own property, trade, or broadcasts unless it is otherwise allowed.

Stalkers can find a way to infiltrate itself into the fabric of economic, social and family of the victim, so personal life in tatters. While it’s easy to read about such events and behavior – it’s all in the news – victims often find themselves not being taken seriously, friends and loved ones call her nervous or paranoid. Since the cyber stalker is often trying to damage the reputation of the victim, their reaction in the vicinity of the victim often more goals Stalker is.

And while cyberstalking is illegal in many parts of the country and around the world, these efforts rarely rise to the level of law enforcement needs to see in order to take it seriously, or to study. Read between the lines in the news and you will find that almost all the arrests that include cyberstalking also contain a dire threat, a violation of the restraining current, ID theft, theft of physical assets or violence against children.


Internet trolling the behavior where giant intends to inflame, upset, or otherwise damaged civil dialogue. In connection with this series of articles, it has the potential to disrupt online or other public communication using vile invective, insults and other verbal destruction. It is often misogynistic. The ability to be anonymous online removes a lot of inhibition one might otherwise think to behave so uncivilly.

What to do?

A common thread throughout the described behavior is the ability to be anonymous online. One might imagine that the removal of the option to remain anonymous would remove incentives for behavior, but in this case, the solution would probably be worse than the problem. In the first part of this series, we discussed the speech – one of the most important our rights – and the importance of anonymity. Both have played a role in the very creation of the nation and continue to protect those who would speak out about the abuse, even as said anonymity makes other forms of abuse. What should we do

In Section 3 we discuss what we can do and what is being done? – Both legal and societally – to limit the harmful cyber behavior